2. Yoga Makaranda Part 1
3. Yoga Makaranda Part II
This post is an attempt to answer the question above with this morning's practice as an example but bringing in some of my older videos relating to slower practice I. E. slower breathing, longer stays (rishi approach) kumbhaka, adapting the 'sequence' to the demands of a slower practice etc. It's along the lines of the kind of practice I've been teaching in crete this summer and will be looking to present, at some point, in my upcoming workshops (see right panel of blog).
I thought I'd put this up at the top of the blog as a permanent page and develop it over time..
I think of the indications below more as options for practice that Krishnamacharya emphasised in his early Mysore writings (1930s-40s), back when he was still teaching the young Pattabhi Jois.
- Longer, slower breathing
- Longer stays in some asana, shorter stays in others
- Kumbhaka ( retaining the breath in for between 2 and 10 seconds after the inhalation and/or retaining the breath out for between 2 and 10 seconds after the exhalation) dependent on the particular asana or mudra.
- It may well follow the general framework of the current Ashtanga sequence but the sequence split perhaps over two or more days.
- Due to splitting up the sequence other asana or variations of asana may be included to prepare or extend a key asana in the days practice
"When once a fair proficiency has been attained in asana and pranayama, the aspirant to dhyana has to regulate the time to be spent on each and choose the particular asanas and pranayama which will have the most effect in strengthening the higher organs and centres of perception and thus aid him in attaining dhyana". Krishnamacharya - Dhyana or meditation Yoga Makaranda part II
"On Sunday November 2nd, Saturn—known as Shanischaracharya (“the slow moving teacher”)—entered the sign Scorpio, where it will remain for almost three years, until October 26th, 2017."
Ujjayi in tatkamudra - 6 breaths ( scanning vital points on inhalation, nabhi on exhalation)
Anuloma ujjai - in Vajrasana - 6 cycles
Krishnamacharya Surya Namaskara options
Parivritta Trikonasana - 3
Utthita Parshvakonasana - 3
Parivritta Parshvakonasana - 3
Prasarita Padottanasana A. - 5
Parshvottanasana - 5
Utthita Hasta Padangushtasana plus standing marichi variation - 1 full breath in each stage
(I spent longer in standing postures this morning, usually I would split these up over two days)
Dandasana - 10
Paschimattanasana - 15 (scanning through vital points on inhalation nasagra on exhalation)
Purvatanasana - 3
mahamudra -10 each side
Slower breathing, 10 second inhalations, 10 second exhalations
Janu Shirshasana A. - 1 each side
Marichyasana A C - one full breath in each variation and on each side
Tiriangmukhaikapada Paschimattanasana - 3
Bharadvajasana - 6 each side
Maha bandha - 6 each side
Ardha Matsyendrasana - 3 each side
Baddha Konasana - 10 each vinyasa
Padmasana with variations - 10 in total
Uth Pluthi - 5
shoulderstand prep ( 3 vinyasas) 3x each variation
Sarvangasana - 12 (legs relaxed )
viparita karani (sirsasana as mudra no variations) - 12
Sarvangasana with assorted variations - 5 mins ( see THIS post )
Shirshasana with assorted variations - 5 mins (see THIS post)
Baddha Padmasana - 10
Paranayama - basti - 30 and nadi sodhana (pratiloma ujjayi) - 6 cycles
Pratyahara 3 mins
trataka - 10 mins
savasana 5 mins
but it perhaps give an impression of how slower breathing, longer stays, less asana might be approached.
The practice from this morning that I outlined above was based on the Primary group asana, tomorrow I will most likely base my practice on the middle group, a similar approach to standing as above with perhaps some time spent on some tadasana backbending preparation variations from vinyasa Krama.
I usually switch to the Vinyasa krama Bow sequence leading up to ustrasana, laugh vajrasana and kapotasana. The Bow sequence follows quite closely the layout of Ashtanga 2nd but with some extra vinyasas.
KRISHNAMACHARYA'S YOGA MAKARANDA PART I
Just been sent a link to this, the 'mythical' part 2 of Krishnamacharya's Yoga Makaranda
AG Mohan suggests in the Text's introduction that it was probably written in the late 1930's or 40's. (the period at which Krishnamacharya was also teaching Pattabhi Jois). The description of the asana is a little different from Yoga Makaranda Part 1, there's no passing from standing through downward dog etc. to the postures and then transitioning back to standing as in the earlier book.
However the Yoga Makaranda (1934) we're familiar with does say that pranayama will be covered in a second part and in many way part 2 is closer to Krishnamacharya's Yogasanagalu (1942) So it this may well have been written between the two but never published.
Something else that comes to mind as we begin reading it is that it's quite familiar in style and content to the lecture notes I posted here earlier, Krishnamacharya Salutations to the teacher and the Eternal one. In fact as we look further through the text it seems fair to suggest that this is the full, original text from which Salutations later derived, supposedly as lecture notes. Yoga Makaranda Part 2 consists of 139 pages, Salutations consists of 43 pages ( but smaller tighter print ). AG Mohan mentions that he saught clarification from krishnamacharya of a number of points in the text but that this is the original document without those notes. This may suggest then that Salutations is much of the original text with those notes and clarifications.
Yoga Makaranda (Part 2) -- Sri T. Krishnamacharya
And in case the plug-in above doesn't work for you, here are the first couple of pages, the cover page, introduction and contents to whet the appetite.
on the Pranayama section
On the Shoulderstands and Headstands section
|It's all about the breath...|
NOTES ON YOGA MAKARANDA (PART II) AND SOME QUESTIONS (GUEST POST)
1. The similarity to Salutations the Teacher the Eternal one
2. Dating the text ( There's a mention of a book by Indra Devi)
3. Differences in style between Yoga Makaranda Part 1 and part II
4. Relation to Krishnamacharya's Yogasanagalu
5. It's relation to Krishnamacharya's later teaching, i.e. Yoga Therapy.
6. The curios order of the text that seemed to suggest to me the possibility of two texts combined
7. The lack of pictures ( although they are mentioned).
8. Who translated the text into English and when.
9. Did Krishnamacharya consider the text as Yoga Makaranda Part II
My own feeling is that as a text that AG Mohan dates originally to the late 30s early 40s, although the typewritten version he was given was from the 60's, It's focus on head and shoulder stands and pranayama make it a good candidate for the completion of original plan of Yoga Makaranda. I think that being the case it's fair to call it Yoga Makaranda (part II). I do wonder if Krishnamacharya ever referred to it as such however. The difficulties arise because it seems fair to assume that it was written a period of time after Yoga Makaranda and then typed up later still. Other material appears to have become included resulting in some of the confusion Enrique highlights below.
Last night I started going through Salutations and marking the page numbers corresponding to the new text in the margin.
Luckily for me Enrique has beaten me to it and produced a re-ordering/correction of the Salutations in the light of AG Mohan's release of Yoga Makaranda ( Part II) allowing us to better compare the two texts. That text plus his comments today raise some interesting questions, here they are below as a guest post, so as to bring the issues together more clearly. The dividing lines are to indicate the different comments.
This post is probably a work in progress that we can add to and will eventually end up with a page of it's own at the top of it's blog along with the previous post on Yoga Makaranda.
These questions should in no way be seen I hope as a lack of gratitude to AG Mohan for releasing the text, I know Enrique is just as appreciative as I am of this gift to the community.
A reminder : This post is made up of comments to the original MythicalYoga Makaranda (Part II) post which should explain it's abrupt and note like presentation.
I'm coming around to an earlier date for Yoga Makaranda (Part II) after all. I've just finished a ten hour practice, pranayama, a long slow Primary series and then, while the body was still loose, a six hour work through of the text of Yoga Makaranda (part II). It took so long because I was carefully following all the instructions, practicing all the variations, highlighting and taking the odd notes. And I hear Yoga Makaranda (part I) in the text, I really do. Admittedly there is no mention of the vinyasa count that characterises part I, but the focus on the breath is there, the postures where you can include retention after exhalation, those after inhalation, the exploration of the breath in Asana. In short pranayama in asana. The descriptions aren't as formal as in the Makaranda we're familiar with, they are more explanatory than descriptive, it's a teaching manual. At times though it's quite extreme, Mayurasana described just as we're familar with from Ashtanga 2nd series, but K. offers a variation where we take the legs into padmasana mayurasana while still balancing in regular mayurasana, tricky and hard on the nose. There are sequences almost exactly like Ramaswami's presentation of Vinyasa Krama, but in suptapa Angushtasana K. includes a full padmasana variation, something you can imagine him including back 1938 when that old demonstration video was short.
So although I think the texts has been worked on and added to over the years, adapted in line with projects that never bore fruition, I'm coming around to the idea that the bones of text may well have been originally written down in the late 30's early 40's.
Watching the demonstration footage again may make you think twice about the text also.
But back to Enrique's guest post.....
Guest post by Enrique Matías Sánchez
As you already noticed, this is the original manuscript of the _Salutation to the Teacher and The Eternal One_ you posted on September 24th.
Mohan's video shows a couple of pictures of the manuscript. _KYM's Salutation_ seems to contain the typewritten text as it was, without the handwritten corrections. Mohan's file adds those corrections, which according to the video were made by Desikachar and himself.
The main difference between these two documents is the order of the contents.
I modified Mohan's file to reorder the contents in the same way as _KYM's Salutation_, so that we can easily compare them and spot the corrections.
I also added some formatting to make it easier to navigate.
This version of Salutation_ is available for download at
Besides the differente ordering, there are three sections that were not included in _KYM'm Salutation_:
- 6. YOGIC PRACTICES DURING PREGNANCY.
- 7. YOGIC EXERCISES AFTER DELIVERY FOR THOSE IN NORMAL HEALTH
- 18. YONI MUDRA or SAMBAVI MUDRA or SHANMUKHI MUDRA
Mohan's video shows that at least the first one was published as an article in KYM's magazine.
Who has the order right, Mohan or KYM? I'm afraid none of them.
It's pretty odd that Mohan's file starts with 19. Sirsasana. If that was supposed to be the beginning of the book, it should obviously have number 1 (or 43, it this was indeed the continuation of Yoga Makaranda).
It makes much more sense to start with the Yamas & Niyamas, and the Classification of Asanas, as KYM's Salutation does.
Further proof is that in page 76 of Mohan's file we read:
``A short description of each of these asanas and the distinctive curative effect of each will be given in the *following* chapters.''
But in that file all the asanas have already been explained!
What happened to the 18 sections that should precede Sirsasana? Maybe in this book Krishnamacharya explained Pranamayas (14 Bhastrika, 15 Sitkari, 17 Sitali) before the asanas?
It's clear that Mohan's file doesn't have the right order.
As we can see in Mohan's video, the typewritten pages are not numbered. It's no surprising that after so many years they got displaced.
For instance, steps 4-7 for Sarvangasana appear under Dvipada Viparitakarani (in KYM's Salutation are in the right place).
Does this mean that KYM's Salutation has the right order? I would say no.
If it did, it would not include Maha Mudra twice (pages 25 and 37).
Besides, in page 16 of KYM's document we read:
``Out of the eight steps in Yoga, the first two, YAMA and NIYAMA, deal with the cleanliness, physical and moral for maintaining proper ethical standards. The next two steps are asanas and pranayamas and *these have been dealt with in previous chapters*.''
And then goes on to explain Tadasana, Sirsasana and all the others.
While Mohan presents the asanas following their numeration, KYM's document is just reminiscient of it (this can be clearly seen in the Table of Contents of my Corrected Salutation).
It's also strange that the treatments for asthma and hernia are explained before saying which diseases are amenable for Yogic treatment. Mohan has that right.
Maybe I'll try to put everything in a more coherent order. It's a pity Mr. Mohan didn't share all the pictures of the original typewritten manuscript, which could probably provide some clues.
I guess the original Indian manuscript would give us a definitive answer, but we don't even know whether it's still existent.
Dating the book is a bit difficult.
Indra Devi studied with T. Krishnamacarya around 1937-39. I'm not sure whether "Yoga for Americans" was her first book on Yoga.
By the way, I don't think K. thought of this writing as Yoga Makaranda part II. If he did, he would not have included again the Yamas and Niyamas, and the asanas already covered there.
I think this is a standalone work, providing a much more personal vision of Yoga.
To me, YM was written as an encyclopaedic work:
- he includes the shatkarmas, which he didn't use to teach
- the 10 yamas and 10 niyamas as per HYP, instead of the Yoga Sutras, etc.
I find the approach in Salutation different, more in line with his later teachings.
I won't dare to date it in relation to the Yogasanagalu until we have a complete translation of it.
Ah, the Yoga Gurundam is mentioned in the Sitali and Setubandhasana sections, as well in the classification of asanas. While it would describe some asanas, K doesn't mention it prescribes any predefined order for practicing them.
AG Mohan's original typewritten English translation of Yoga Makaranda (part II) text stamped with this address.